What is nutrition? The difference between nutrition and food


"Scientifically, nutrition is the chemistry of food sciences."
– Dr. Timothy Yeh
  " Nutrition is not food, food is not nutrition. "  
    – Dr. Timothy Yeh
  " Food is created by God synchronized together with three
basic sciences; Biology, Chemistry and Physics . "
    – Dr. Timothy Yeh
  " Let food be your medicine, medicine be your food."  
    – Hippocrates



Vitamins, minerals and trace elements are essential in our daily diet. They are needed for normal functioning of our body and to achieve homeostasis. The best way to ensure intake of these substances is by eating a wide variety of foods in small amounts, or to supplement with a liquid multi-vitamin and mineral complex. The following section is a guideline for adequate intake of vitamins, minerals and trace elements.

Vitamins are substances, which in small amounts are necessary to sustain life. They must be obtained from food as they are either not made in the body at all, or are not made in sufficient quantities for growth, vitality and wellness. A deficiency of a particular vitamin causes disease symptoms that can only be treated by that particular vitamin. It is impossible to sustain life without all the essential vitamins. Vitamins have many functions and influence the health of nearly every organ in the body. Their combination with other substances such as minerals, proteins and enzymes brings about certain chemical reactions.

Individual vitamins have specific functions, which vary widely and can overlap. They are involved in growth, the ability to produce healthy offspring and the maintenance of health. They play a role in metabolism, enabling the body to use other essential nutrients such as carbohydrates,fats, proteins and minerals. Vitamins are important for a normal appetite, in digestion, mental alertness and resistance to bacterial infections. In addition to satisfying the body’s daily needs and preventing deficiency diseases, vitamins have several therapeutic effects. For example, niacin can be used to lower cholesterol and vitamin A derivatives can be used to treat acne. Large doses of vitamins may slow, or even reverse many diseases previously thought an inevitable part of aging, such as cancer, heart disease, osteoporosis, impaired immunity, nerve degeneration and other chronic health problems.

Vitamins are chemically unrelated substances and are organic. Organic substances are those that contain carbon and come from materials that are living, such as plants and animals, or substances that were once living, for example petroleum or coal. Vitamins consists of 13 organic compounds (natural and contain carbon) and are required in very small amounts (micro to milligram). Vitamins provide energy (indirectly) to the body, are required for growth and development, and are needed to assist with chemical reaction within the cells. They are not used as a major source of fuel, but are required for metabolism.


Minerals, Trace elements

Minerals are elements that the body must have in order to create specific molecules needed within the body. Some minerals are supplied in the molecule that uses them. For example, sulfur comes via the amino acid methionine and cobalt comes in as part of vitamin B12. Food provides these minerals, and if they are lacking in the diet, then various problems and diseases will arise. The common minerals needed by the body are calcium, chlorine, chromium, copper, fluorine, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, and zinc.



Protein is needed for the muscles, nails and hair maintenance. It is important for life because it provides the structure for all living things. It controls rates of metabolic reactions, clotting factors, and plasma proteins that regulate water balance, certain hormones, and the antibodies that fight against infection. It should be consumed from beans, soy products, sea vegetables, seeds, nuts, seafood, fish and occasionally animal meats. When eating protein from animals, the meat should be thoroughly cooked – not raw or rare. In Leviticus chapter 7, verse 26, the Bible clearly states, "And wherever you live, you must not eat the blood of any bird or animal." Protein deficiency leads to extreme weight loss, wasting, anemia, and growth retardation.

Digestion of protein results in amino acids, which can be easily absorbed by intestinal cells and transported into the blood. Except for eight essential amino acids that must be acquired from foods, the body can synthesize the rest. All the amino acids must be present in the body at the same time for growth and repair of tissue to occur. If any one amino acid is missing, protein synthesis cannot take place. Complete proteins are needed for sustaining life. Therefore, we recommend soybean products because they are complete proteins that contain all of the essential amino acids that the human body requires.

For an average adult, approximately 0.4 grams of protein per every pound of body weight is all that is required. In addition to this, pregnant women require 30 grams of protein more per day and nursing mothers require 20 grams of protein more per day. We do not need to overindulge in protein, which can easily lead to obesity.



Lipids are the family name for fats, oils, fatty acids, cholesterol and lipoproteins. Tryglycerides are the most common dietary lipids and are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol in the body. Glycerol, in turn, can be used to synthesize glucose. The structure of all cells is composed of lipids and without it, new cells cannot regenerate and existing cells would die. Weight loss and skin lesions are characteristics of lipid deficiency. However, excessive consumption of lipids will also harm the body and cause obesity, high cholesterol and increased risk of heart disease.

The liver can convert fatty acids from one form to another. However it cannot synthesize the essential fatty acid (EFA) linoleic acid, which is needed to synthesize phospholipids to form cell membranes and to transport circulating lipids. Excellent sources for this EFA are corn oil, cotton seed oil and soy oil. Other EFAs include linolenic acid and arachidonic acid.

Fats are solids at room temperature while oils are fluid. Fats are the most calorie dense nutrient, with nine calories per gram. A person who lives off of burgers, fries and shakes consumes up to 50% of total daily calories from fat. The American Heart Association advises that the daily intake of fat should not exceed 30% of total daily calories, which amounts to no more than 80-100 grams of fat per day. Some restrictive diets for patients with cardiovascular disease advise only 10% of fat per total daily calorie intake. We recommend that if you can keep your fat intake to 20-30%, you will lower the risk for disease, while at the same time enjoy the foods you eat.

Overall, dietary fats should be reduced, but essential fatty acids that are needed for maintaining cell structure must not be lacking. There are three main categories of fats, and they are divided into: 1) saturated, 2) monosaturated, and 3) unsaturated fatty acids.

Three Recommendations On The Use Of Oils
1) Use more often: olive oil (virgin or extra virgin), canola oil (expeller pressed or cold pressed), hazelnut oil, walnut oil, avocado, sesame oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil.
2) Use less often: safflower oil, peanut oil, cocoa butter, cottonseed oil
3) Never use: lard, vegetable shortening, animal fat shortening, palm oil, coconut oil, chicken fat, beef fat, butter fat, margarine. Read labels and decrease consumption of food with any of the above ingredients – such as butter, ice cream, cream, and whole milk products.



Carbohydrates are organic compounds that are used to power cellular processes and include the sugars and starches. They are needed more by physically active individuals and less by those who are sedentary. Carbohydrates from foods are used by the body for energy, stored as glycogen or converted to fat. Cells also use carbohydrates for generating important biochemicals, such as the five-carbon sugars that are needed for the production of the nucleic acids, DNA and RNA.

The body needs carbohydrates. In fact over 50% of the daily dietary intake should consist of carbohydrates because even a temporary decrease in supply may severely damage nervous system function and metabolic acidosis. The adult liver stores about 100 grams of glucose as glycogen (a process known as glucogenesis) and the muscle tissue stores another 200 grams. This provides enough reserve for up to 12 hours when the person is resting. The rest of the carbohydrates that are not stored are converted into fat and stored in adipose tissue. Over dosage of carbohydrates can cause obesity, dental caries and nutritional deficits.

In summary, we recommend the simple carbohydrates, such as honey, molasses, maple syrup, cane sugar, beat sugar, barley malt and fruits to be eaten in moderation. We encourage the complex carbohydrates, such as whole grains, cereals, rice, beans, vegetables and fiber to be eaten more frequently.



During every second of life, more than 3000 different enzymes are in the process of forming, changing, and renewing all cellular activity that is necessary to keep the body alive. Everyone is born with an enzyme potential determined by the nucleic acid, DNA. The DNA genetic code determines the body’s ability to produce an infinite amount of metabolic and digestive enzymes during a lifetime. No two individuals, whether 6 or 60 years old, have the same enzyme potential.

Right now, just as you are reading this paragraph, millions of body cells have died, been destroyed and carried away, and millions of new cells have been produced as replacements. When enzyme activity stops, life stops and the person or organism dies. The body contains 100 trillion cells and countless millions of tiny enzyme building blocks, which continually renew and maintain life. Without enzymes, birth could not happen. Not a single person, plant or animal could exist. Enzymes are the fountain of life, the life energy and the labor force that keeps us alive. Enzymes deliver nutrients, carry away toxic wastes, digest food, purify the blood, deliver hormones, balance cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and feed the brain. They also feed and fortify the endocrine system. A lack of enzymes could allow illness and lower resistance to diseases. Enzymes are an energy catalyst and every action of organs and glands needs energy to work. We receive energy from food nutrients, along with enzyme activity, to feed the 100 trillion cells in our body. These nutrients are available through the digestion of our food and are carried throughout our system by the energy of enzymes. We must follow a balanced diet containing a substantial amount of fresh foods and vegetables in each meal. Enzyme deficiencies can include digestive disturbance, deposition of fat, and excess weight. Further health problems include disorders of the circulation leading to cardiovascular diseases and disorders of the heart. Without enzymes, no metabolic activity can occur. If the body cannot metabolize the nutrients derived from food, the body becomes susceptible to chronic and degenerative diseases. These enzymes can only come from foods containing enzymes or food enzyme supplements. There are three main classes of enzymes: Metabolic Enzymes Metabolic enzymes are required for the growth of new cells and maintenance of all our organs and tissues. They take proteins, fats, and carbohydrates (starches, sugars, etc.), and structure them into healthy cells – keeping everything in proper working balance. Every organ and tissue has its own particular metabolic enzyme to do specific work. Digestive Enzymes Digestive enzymes, which are produced internally, and food enzymes, which are provided externally, have only one job — to digest food and deliver nutrients to our bodies. Digestive proteins, carbohydrates, and fats require protease (enzymes that digest protein), amylase (enzymes that digest carbohydrates) and lipase (enzymes that digest fat). If our organs must devote a large portion of their enzymes potential to manufacture digestive enzymes, it spells trouble for the whole body. A strain on production of metabolic enzymes results when there is not enough enzyme potential available. Food enzymes come from external food intake or supplemental sources. To ease the conflict between metabolic and digestive enzymes, support is obtained from external food enzymes. These food enzymes help with digestion instead of forcing the body’s digestive enzymes to do all the work. When food enzymes are available to support digestion, the requirement for the body to manufacture digestive enzymes is reduced, and more of our enzyme potential is allocated to the production of metabolic enzymes, which run the body. Co-enzymes are small organic molecules, which are essential for the activity of enzymes. They bind tightly to the surface of enzyme so that they can be efficiently used in enzyme catalyzed reactions. Many co-enzymes cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from plants or microorganisms in the diet. Vitamins are often the precursors of required co-enzymes.



Water is essential to human existence and cannot be compromised. It is the most abundant molecular component of living matter and constitutes 60-80% of total body weight in humans. Muscle composition is approximately 70% water. The body’s water supply is responsible for almost every body process, including digestion, absorption, filtration, circulation and excretion. Water is the primary transporter of nutrients and is needed for development, growth, maintenance, and normal functioning of the human body. Water balance is maintained within our body as long as our total water intake equals the total water lost. The average adult takes in about 2500 milliliters of water each day. About 60% are obtained from drinking water and beverages, 30% from moist foods and 10% as the by-product of oxidative metabolism of nutrients, also known as water metabolism. During exercise, the body loses water through perspiration (dehydration). It is important that you continuously drink water while you are exercising and throughout the day.

Within a day, the average adult will lose 60% of this volume through urine, 6% through feces, and 6% through sweat. A sedentary person loses a quart of water per day as sweat, an athlete may lose 2-4 quarts of water per hour. Also, about 28% will be lost through evaporation from the skin and lungs. Thus, replenishing the body of water daily is an essential part of good health.

The single, most important reason why we should drink plenty of water is for the filtration of blood by the kidneys. Each day, the waste products of metabolism and toxic substances are purified and cleansed out by the kidneys. This filtering system can only operate efficiently if there is enough water volume to carry away the waste. Water is not only crucial to the kidney system, it is also important for the liver system, which needs large quantities of water to detoxify the liver and blood stream. Dehydration can cause dizziness, tachycardia (rapid heart beat), vasoconstriction, decreased urine output, hypotension, skin and mucous membranes of the mouth to feel dry, hyperthermia, cool extremities, mental confusion, delirium, kidney damage, liver damage, coma and death. Lack of water may aggravate fever, infections, urinary problems, prostate problems and asthma. It can certainly harm anyone doing rigorous exercise and hard physical labor. In 1994, the world watched in horror as thousands of people in Africa died of cholera, a bacteria infection that destroys the ability of intestinal lining cells to absorb water. The severe diarrhea that develops kills in days, sometimes even hours. Dehydration is deadly.

We always ask people to drink 8-10 (8 ounce) glasses of water each day, which equals about 64-80 ounces. Quite simply, there really isn’t a better drink than just plain good-quality water. Most people would agree that drinking water is a satisfying and enjoyable act, but for those who do not like to drink water, try drinking small amounts more frequently or drink some warm tea. Remember that a sure sign the kidneys are being hurt by dehydration is the presence of dark colored urine. This is a good indicator that the body needs more water.

The good-quality water should come from a reliable filtration system, one free from lead plumbing and contamination by toxic chemicals. The system that we use at home and at the office is a reverse osmosis (RO) filtration system, which works by trapping a high concentration of contaminants in a membrane as clean water is pressured through. Reverse osmosis can treat a wide variety of health and aesthetic contaminants that cause unpleasant taste, color, and odor problems, like a salty or soda taste caused by chlorides or sulfates.

According to the laws of natural medicine and the biothermomic temperature, the water that we drink should not be iced or refrigerated. Our body is 37 degrees Celsius (98.6 degrees Fahrenheit) and drinking room temperature water is already cooling down the body. We do not need the added pressure of cold temperature foods to slow down metabolism, suppress the immune system and hinder the circulatory system, especially on cold days.

In summary, we recommend 8-10 glasses (64-80 ounces) of good-quality water each day. The water should be room temperature or warm and come from a filtering system.



Fiber is the broad name given to the things consumed that the body cannot digest. The three fibers eaten on a regular basis are cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Hemicellulose is found in the hulls of different grains like wheat. Bran is hemicellulose. Cellulose is the structural component of plants. It gives a vegetable its familiar shape. Pectin is found most often in fruits, and is soluble in water but non-digestible. Pectin is normally called "water-soluble fiber" and forms a gel.

Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate. It is a chain of glucose molecules. Some animals and insects can digest cellulose. Both cows and termites have no problem with it because they have bacteria in their digestive systems secreting enzymes that break down cellulose into glucose. Human beings have neither the enzymes nor these beneficial bacteria, so cellulose is fiber or “roughage”.

When fiber enters the body, it simply passes straight through, untouched by the digestive system. However, fiber has an important role to maintain normal digestive function. It benefits normal bowel function, diverticular diseases, colon cancer, irritable bowel syndrome, heart disease, diabetes and weight control. Nutritional researchers and medical professionals are reevaluating the benefits of fiber and are stressing the importance of consuming fiber as a part of the daily diet.




Daily Nutritional Requirements

The USRDA, RDI, DRV and DV are a set of nutrient standards recommended by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). These values represent the average daily intake of energy and nutrients considered adequate to meet the needs of most healthy people in the United States under usual environmental stresses. They were designed for the maintenance of good nutrition. People are urged to base their diets on a variety of common foods in order to obtain other nutrients for which human requirements have been less well defined. These guidelines are not assurances to any individual that, if they consume these amounts of nutrients, they will attain maximum health.

The first daily intake standards for nutrition labels established in 1973 were based on the 1968 Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA). These intake standards were mandatory for 8 and optional for 12 food components on nutrition labels. The USRDA is a consensus number agreed upon by a committee of the National Academy of Science and the National Research Council. It is the intake of a given vitamin that prevents deficiency symptoms in 97.5% of the population studied. This value is based upon a variety of data including the epidemiology of humans, direct measurement of the vitamins in serum, tissues and urine of normal and deficient individuals, and isotopic tracer studies.

Daily Value is a relatively newer term used on product labels and is based upon two sets of standards. The first set is called Reference Daily Intake or RDI (formerly known as the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance) and reflects the recommended level of intake for most vitamins and minerals. The second set, called Daily Reference Values or DRV, is for other nutrients that also have a significant impact on health and disease such as fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. Revised nutritional regulations published in 1993 were for 19 RDI components and 8 DRV food components.
Percent DVs are mandatory for 10 food components and optional for 16 food components. It relates the amount of a nutrient provided by one serving of the food to established standards. Optional percent DVs become mandatory if claims are made about the food components or if the food components are added to the food through fortification or as food additives. Some DRVs are based on reference calorie intakes of 2,000 (average need by post-menopausal women, women who exercise moderately, teenage girls and sedentary men) and 2,500 calories (adequate for young men) and others on dietary recommendations suggested by some health and nutrition groups.

Reference Daily Intake (RDI)

Vitamin A 5000 IU
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) 1.5 mg
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) 1.7 mg
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) 20 mg
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) 10 mg
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxin) 2 mg
Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) 6 mcg
Biotin 300 mcg
Choline 50-100 mg
Folic Acid 200-400 mcg
Inositol 50-100 mg
PABA (para-aminobenzoic acid) 15-25 mg
Vitamin C with mineral ascorbates 60 mg
Vitamin D 400 IU
Vitamin E 30 IU
Vitamin K 80 mcg


Calcium 800-1000 mg
Magnesium 400 mg
Phosphorus 1000 mg
Iron 18 mg
Iodine 150 mcg
Copper 2 mg
Zinc 15 mg
Manganese 2 mg
Chromium 120mg
Selenium 70 mcg
Molybdenum 70 mcg

Daily Recommended Values (DRV)

Fat Less than 65 g
Saturated Fat Less than 20 g
Cholesterol Less than 300 mg
Protein 50 g
Carbohydrates (total) 300 g
Sodium Less than 2400 mg
Potassium 3500 mg
Fiber 25 g

The DRV was established and intended for adults and children over the age of four.
Most food labels will show percentages of DRV s based on a 2,000 calorie diet.

The RDA protein varies for different groups of people are:
* pregnant women – 60 g
* nursing mothers – 65 g
* infants under 1 year – 14 g
* children 1- 4 years – 16 g


Food pyramid of today

On April 19, 2005, The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) released "MyPyramid" an update on the existing US Food Guide Pyramid. The new icon stresses activity and moderation along with a proper mix of food groups in one’s diet.

Significant changes from the previous food pyramid includes:
* Quantities are measured in cups and ounces instead of "servings".
* A person on the stairs, a new symbol represents physical activity.

MyPyramid was designed to educate consumers about a lifestyle consistent with the latest Dietary Guidelines for Americans, an 80-page document released in January 2005. The guidelines, produced jointly by the USDA and Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), represent the Federal nutrition policy

There are six food groups in MyPyramid from left to right:

* Grains – recommends at least half of grains consumed to be as whole grains
* Vegetables – includes dark green vegetables, orange vegetables, dry beans and peas
* Fruits – variety of fruits deemphasizing fruit juices
* Oil – recommends fish, nut and vegetable sources
* Milk – includes other dairy products
* Meat & beans – includes low-fat and lean meats such as fish, as well as more beans, peas, nuts and seeds

Two Categories:

Physical activity, represented by a person climbing steps on the pyramid, with at least 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity
recommended per day (in some cases at least 60 or 90 minutes)

Discretionary calories, represented by the uncolored tip of the pyramid, including items such as candy, alcohol, or additional food from
any other food group.